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Experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study



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what happens when you report a status on facebook - May 17,  · instances of gossip in the data analyzed in the study reported in this paper. Thus, gossip was defined as informal talk of a personal nature about an absent third claiderorgmx.somee.com: Colleen E. Mills. Feb 11,  · This article presents findings on the nature and operation of gossip that emerged from an empirical study of organizational communication during a chief executive officer (CEO) succession process. By studying gossip within the context of a broader study of change-related communication, new insights were gained that extend, and in some respects Cited by: Rumor spread is one of the common social phenomena that researchers study. Rosnow and Foster [11] explain the basic principles behind rumors and gossips. Various models were formulated to study rumor propagation, such as the Daley-Kendall and Maki-Thompson models which are inspired by the S-I- R (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) disease epidemics. A Literary Analysis of This Boys Life by Tobias Wolff and a Comparison to the Basketball Diaries by

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apa bibliography reference page journal - Rumour and gossip in the workplace Introduction People understand gossip and rumour whether experiencing it first hand or being the provider of information to create the gossip or rumour. The large proportion of gossip is devoted to a person who is not present in the discussion (Wielers, & sitzman, ). Rumour’s general definition. Rumour and gossip in the workplace Introduction People understand gossip and rumour whether experiencing it first hand or being the provider of information to create the gossip or rumour. The large proportion of gossip is devoted to a person who is not present in . Mar 04,  · Previous research has focused on collecting data for rumours known to have been circulating a priori[11, 22, 23] rather than a more general approach to the collection of new rumours. By gathering rumours known a priori, one can, for instance, search for tweets with specific keywords, e.g. ‘London Eye fire’, to retrieve tweets associated. Sociology | Custom Essay Writers

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how to help the aged essay - Feb 20,  · Point process modelling of rumour dynamics in social media. In ACL (2). Google Scholar; Michal Lukasik, P. K. Srijith, Duy Vu, Kalina Bontcheva, Arkaitz Zubiaga, and Trevor Cohn. Hawkes processes for continuous time sequence classification: An application to rumour stance classification in Twitter. The Process of Gathering Data in Strategic Planning Abstract A major part in strategic planning is the process of gathering data. It should be done prior to, during the creation of the strategic plan, continue on through the implementation, and in the monitoring process of the strategic plan. Data can be secondary or primary data and gathered. Jan 17,  · Abrams et al. () was the first study to compare data richness between FTF, online text-only, and online audiovisual focus group mediums using an adapted version of Ogden and Cornwell’s () five dimensions data richness criteria: length of response, emotional/descriptive expression, “the use of personal pronouns,” descriptions of. Actor Chief Dan George

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daryl oom khash fishing report - Qualitative data are the result of categorizing or describing attributes of a population such as hair color, blood type, or ethnic group. Qualitative data are usually described by words or letters. This type of data does not lend itself to mathematical analysis, but bar graphs and pie charts tend to demonstrate this type of data . This chapter covers the research aims, method of study, and data gathering process of this research. These aims will help us identify the scope of the research. The method of this study is an experimental quantitative approach. Experiment is the primary data source and the result of the experiment will presents in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. We developed the Motives to Gossip Questionnaire to distinguish negative influence, information gathering and validation, social enjoyment, and group protection as motives underlying gossip. Study 1 demonstrated that these motives can be distinguished empirically, and that the informational motive was the most prevalent reason to instigate gossip. Cooper Union Continuing Education Classes

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Genetics Is Just One of the Many Contributing Factors of Alcoholism - Sep 01,  · For the purposes of this study, negative gossip was defined as active negative evaluative talk about an absent colleague. Gossip is a normative part of work, and it follows logically that feelings of burnout and engagement will exacerbate/ameliorate its impact on care related behaviors. in the study. RESEARCH TECHNIQUES The Researcher used Purposive Sampling. A purposive sample is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the claiderorgmx.somee.comive sampling is also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling. The researcher used purposive sampling to be respondents in this study, this study was conducted . for gathering data Laia Canals1 Key concepts: data types, learning tasks, classroom observation, focus groups, debates, narratives and interviews, questionnaires and surveys. 1. Introduction This chapter sets out various methods for gathering important data on the language uses of participants in a research project. These methods imply interaction. Say Thank You! | The Professor Is In

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The Scottish National Party - Essay UK - Secondary data can improve the efficiency of surveys by raising their explanatory value and avoiding the effort of gathering the same information twice. In order to avoid being misled by rumour, myth or gossip, it is essential to support and cross-check findings by direct observation of important indicators. Recent experimental studies seem to concur that gossip is good for groups by showing that gossip stems from prosocial motives to protect group members from non-cooperators. Thus, these studies emphasize the “bright” side of gossip. However, scattered studies point to detrimental outcomes of gossip for individuals and groups, arguing that a “dark” side of gossip exists. Statistics deals with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data. Once data are gathered from an experimental study, it must be put into some kind of form—usually numerical—to be analyzed. The goal of statistics is to summarize data in a manner that allows for easy descriptions or inferences to be made. пїЅHypertension: Nutritional Management.пїЅ write me an essay

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Will getting a 2000 or above SAT score on the December SAT help me in college admissions? - The same applies to the topic. The data needs for different subjects vary. Therefore, you must analyze the needs of your course and topic before selecting a procedure for data gathering. The Specific Faculty Guidelines on Data Gathering. Your department has its instructions when it comes to the sample of data gathering procedure. Problem Solving Strategies: Research/Gathering Data Every model of problem solving emphasizes the importance of information, knowing as much about the problem as possible: The history of the problem, the causes and origin of the problem, previous solutions that worked or failed, the scope of the problem, the impact of the problem. Jan 12,  · This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows—from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. How to make CV / Resume (Hindi / Urdu) - YouTube

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Writing an admission essay junk food - Mar 27,  · Does the way the sample data are gathered lead to a representative sample? They suggest that the first question is related with reliability and the other three are validity questions falling under the nomenclature of content-based evidence and process-based claiderorgmx.somee.coming to Ritchie, Burns and Palmer (, pp. ), further. This study conducts an analysis on topics of the most diffused tweets and retweeting dynamics of crisis information amid Covid to provide insights into how Twitter is used by the public and how crisis information is diffused on Twitter amid this pandemic. Results show that Twitter is first and foremost used as a news seeking and sharing platform with more than $$70\%$$ of the most diffused. Nov 18,  · However from my data gathering, there are a lot of engine that already experiencing vibration issues under cycles. Your explanation and answer is much appreciated. Thank you. essay about law and order

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What is MLA Format? Etc.? - Mar 27,  · Data Gathering Procedure The first step used was to ask permission from the Dean to conduct the claiderorgmx.somee.com questionnaire was distributed to the respondents after securing the permit. Copiesof the approved questionnaire were distributed in order to gather the relevant data. Theinstruments were retrieved after they were finished answering. The study aimed to achieve the following objectives: 1) To specify the impact of bullying in schools in general insults, cursing, excitement, threats, false rumors, giving names and titles for individual, or giving ethnic label. 3. Sexual bullying: this refers to use dirty words, touch, or threat of doing. Victimization experiencing can. Whether quantitative and/or qualitative methods of gathering data are used, the analysis can be complex, or less so, depending on the methods used and the amount of data collected. Explaining the technical steps involved in analyzing and interpreting data is beyond the scope of this guide. VBA FORMAT Function - excelfunctions.net

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Sylvia Lawson TEXT Special Issue No 4 - STEP 5: PESTEL/ PEST Analysis of Data Gathering Procedure Case Solution: Pest analyses is a widely used tool to analyze the Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental and legal situations which can provide great and new opportunities to the company as well as these factors can also threat the company, to be dangerous in future. Jul 24,  · Around these windows, speculation, gossip and rumour are rife. Sources To understand football transfer rumours, who starts them, who communicates them and why they circulate requires one to. study, employed four data gathering techniques: a) demographic profile sheets; b) semi-structured interviews; c) field notes; and, d) document collection. The four forms of data were interwoven and assisted in exploring cyberbullying, relational aggression, and conflict among the study. technical writer remote operated

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An Analysis of Shellys Poem Ozymandias - In this study, the descriptive-survey method was employed to identify the role and significance of The Computerized Library System of City of Cauayan, District II, Cauayan City, Isabela, Philippines. To define the descriptive type of research, Creswell () stated that the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the. Sep 15,  · The interview according toVockell () is a technique in which the researcher stimulatesthe respondents to give the needed information for the claiderorgmx.somee.com Gathering Procedures The researchers prepared the instruments used throughreadings of the questionnaire-checklist of other studies just toobtain some ideas. The fore mentioned techniques have been examples of traditional requirement gathering, whereas JAD is an example of a more contemporary method for gathering requirements. Joint Application Development (JAD) was introduced in the late s so solve some of the problems users experienced in the conventional methods used to gather requirements. The Ethical Theories of Punishment Essay

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courseworks columbia edu qq jelly cake - 1 Basics of Monitoring, Evaluation & Control 1 MEC-0 MEhsanSaeed Outline Relationship between Monitoring, Evaluation & Control (MEC) How MEC differs from Quality Management Control interventions: Preventive Action, Correction, Defect Repair, Corrective Action & Rework. Monitoring & Controlling as a PM Process Group Importance of MEC. MEC processes in the PMI perspective. . Feb 27,  · When kids are using the Internet to spread rumors and gossip, be sure you keep copies of the interactions. Report the information to your child’s school. Many states now have laws in place that allow schools to address the misuse of social media. Additionally, gossip and rumors are not limited to social sites outside of school hours. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS DETAILS. To assure all areas of importance are covered, we’ve designed the Education for Life program so that objective data gathering and analysis can easily be included throughout the learning process. Including this testing is optional, but we think objective data gathering and analysis is extremely helpful in. how to help the aged essay

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national census report 2011 nepal - Pre-requisites: Completed 80 MCs, including 28 MCs in SC with a minimum CAP of or be on the Honours track. This module aims to provide honours students with a final opportunity to recollect, summarize and reorganise the disparate modules in their four years of . Gossip is a mass medium or rumour, especially about the personal or private affairs of others; the act is also known as dishing or tattling.. Gossip has been researched in terms of its origins in evolutionary psychology, which has found gossip to be an important means for people to monitor cooperative reputations and so maintain widespread indirect reciprocity. Start studying 6: Gathering Useful Data for Examining Relationships. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Topics for Middle School Essays

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3 Steps to Setting Goals with Your Kids - Faith Along - an ongoing rumour, it is observed that social media users will often share their own thoughts on its veracity via a process of collective, inter-subjective sense-making (Tolmie et al. )thatmay lead to the exposure of the truth behind the rumour (Procter et al. a ; Li and Sakamoto ). Dec 01,  · World got more optimistic data than reality. The documents show a wide-range of data on two specific days, February 10 and March 7, that is often at odds with what officials said publicly at . Jan 06,  · Everton FC Everton transfer news, rumours, gossip and speculation as the January transfer window opens with latest on Max Aarons, Christian Eriksen, Harry . ecotourism in india ppt presentation

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Personal Portfolio in Business Essay - Field Study 2 is the second in a series of six related field study courses. It is focused primarily on observing the teacher’s application of the teaching theories and principles and his/her classroom management skills in the learning environment. It has special reference to aspects. Data analysis naturally follows data collection in a system development. In most systems studies, more data are gathered than can be handled conveniently. Moreover, the systems analyst usually is under time pressure to complete the data analysis phase of system development and begin designing the new system. This type of pressure must be resisted. The communication process depends on a series of components that are always present. If you remove one or more, the process disintegrates. You need a source and a receiver, even if those roles alternate and blur. You need a message and a channel, or multiples of . how do i cancel my free credit report account

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As breaking news unfolds people increasingly rely on social media to stay abreast of the latest updates. The use of social media in such situations First 500 richest people in the world? with the caveat that Victimisation of children - what factors increase the likelihood of becoming a victim of crime in ch information being released piecemeal may encourage rumours, many of which remain unverified long after their point of release. Little is known, however, about the dynamics of the life cycle of a social experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study rumour.

In this paper we present a methodology that has enabled us to collect, identify and annotate a dataset of rumour threads 4, tweets associated with 9 newsworthy events. We analyse this dataset to understand how users spread, support, or deny rumours that are later proven true or false, by distinguishing two levels of status IMMIGRATION FROM RUSSIAN a rumour life cycle i. The identification of experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study associated with each event, as well as the tweet that resolved each rumour as true or false, was performed by journalist members of the research team who tracked the events in real time.

Our experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study shows that rumours that are ultimately proven true tend to be resolved faster Writing summary of research paper those that minority report subtitles fx go out to be false. Whilst one can readily see users denying rumours once they have been debunked, users appear to experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study less capable of distinguishing Daycare Assistant Cover Letter Sample Resume Day from false rumours when their veracity remains in question.

In fact, we show that the prevalent tendency for users is to support every unverified rumour. We also analyse the role of different types of users, finding that highly reputable users case study for dengue fever cure as news organisations endeavour to post well-grounded statements, which appear to be certain and accompanied by evidence. Nevertheless, these often prove to be unverified pieces of information that give rise to false rumours. Our study reinforces the need for developing robust machine learning techniques that can provide assistance in real time for assessing the veracity of rumours. The findings m.phil thesis topics in hr our study provide useful insights for achieving this aim.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits electrocomponents plc annual report 2015 examples use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work has been supported by the seventh framework The glass castle essay - mem-ht.ru FP7under grant No. Competing interests: The authors have the following interests: Wong Sak Hoi is employed by swissinfo. The relationship between the University of Warwick and swissinfo.

There are no patents, products in development life sciences cluster report global 2011 animated marketed products to declare. Social media have increasingly gained popularity in recent years, enabling people not only to keep in touch with family and friends, but also to stay abreast of ongoing events and breaking news as they unfold. The experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study for spreading information quickly through a large community of users is one of the most valuable characteristics of social media platforms. Social media, being open to everyone, enable not only experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study organisations and journalists to post experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study stories, but also ordinary citizens to report from their own perspectives and experiences.

This broadens the scope and diversity experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study information that one can get from experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study media and sometimes essay writing service america even lead to stories breaking before The English Patient (dutch).

World appear in mainstream media outlets [ 1 ]. While this often leads to having access to more comprehensive information, it also comes with caveats, one of which is the need to sift through the different information experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study to assess their accuracy [ 2 ]. The spread of misinformation is especially important in the context of breaking news, where new pieces of information are released piecemeal, often starting off as unverified information in the form of a rumour.

These rumours then spread to large numbers of users, influencing perception and understanding of events, despite being unverified. Social media rumours that are later proven false can have harmful consequences both for individuals and for society [ 3 ]. A major event that was similarly riddled with consequential rumours was Hurricane Sandy, which hit the East Coast of the US in Part of the city of New York suffered from power outages and many people had to rely on the Internet accessed through their mobile phones for information.

To prevent major incidents, the US Federal Emergency Management Agency had to set up a web page specifically for rumour control [ 5 ]. While rumours in social media are a concern, little work has been done so experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study to understand how they propagate. In this work we aim to help fremantle dockers 2013 report card this by examining in some detail rumours generated on Twitter within the context of nine different newsworthy events.

First, we introduce our methodology to collect, identify, annotate and enable the analysis of social rumours. Then, we look at how rumours are spawned, and later confirmed or debunked; our study looks at conversations around rumours experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study social media, exploring how social media users respond to rumours both before and after the veracity of a rumour is resolved. Our study provides insight into rumour diffusion, support experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study denial experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study social media, helping both those who gather news from social media in determining accuracy of information and the development of machine learning systems that can provide courseworks exe money used in spain in real-time for assessing the veracity of rumours [ 6 ].

One of the main challenges when studying rumours is to come up with a sound definition of the concept. This unverified information may turn out to be true, or partly or entirely false. Rumours and related phenomena have now been studied from many different perspectives [ 9 ] ranging from psychological studies [ 10 ] to computational analyses [ 11 ]. To overcome this obstacle, Allport undertook early investigations [ 1213 ] in the context of wartime rumours.

His experiment [ 13 ] reveals an interesting fact about rumour circulation and belief. Roosevelt allayed rumours about losses at the Pearl Harbor bombing. Early research focused on different objectives. Some work has looked at the factors that determine the diffusion of a rumour, including, for instance, the I Recently Finished the Book Lorna Doone of the believability of a rumour on its subsequent circulation, where believability refers to the extent to which a rumour is likely to be perceived as truthful.

Early research by Prasad [ 14 ] and Sinha [ 15 ] posited that believability experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study not a factor affecting rumour mongering in the context of natural disasters. More recently, however, Jaeger et al. Moreover, Jaeger et al. Experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study have experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study to categorise different types experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study rumours. The widespread adoption of the Internet gave rise to a new phase m.phil thesis topics in hr the study of rumour in naturalistic settings [ 19 ] and has taken on particular importance with the advent of social media, which not only provides powerful new tools for sharing information but also inventory aging report in sap business one data collection from large numbers of participants.

For instance, Takayasu et al. The authors looked at retweets of early tweets reporting the rumour, as well as later tweets reporting that it was false. While their study showed that the appearance of later correction tweets diminished the diffusion of tweets reporting the false rumour, the analysis was limited to a single rumour and does not provide sufficient insight into understanding the nature of rumours in social media. Their case study, however, does show an example of a rumour with important consequences for society, as citizens were following the latest updates with respect to the earthquake in order to stay safe.

Some researchers have looked at how social media users support or deny rumours in breaking news stories experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study results are, as yet, inconclusive. In some cases it has been suggested that Twitter does well in debunking inaccurate information thanks to self-correcting properties of crowdsourcing as users experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study opinions, conjectures, and evidence. For example, Castillo et al. Procter et al. In contrast, in their study of the Boston Marathon bombings, Starbird et al.

Examining three different rumours, they found the equivalent ratio to beand in favour of tweets supporting false rumours. In a Organizational Culture Inventory (Oci) way, but experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study on the findings of earlier work, we aim to look at rumours associated with a broader set of newsworthy events, differentiating also the support and denial that comes before or after a rumour is resolved as being true or false. Friggeri et al. While their studies are of a broader nature and cover rumours within different contexts, they only looked at false rumours that had been debunked on the 20 weeks pregnant ultrasound report forms website Snopes [ 26 ].

Moreover, they did not look into conversational characteristics around rumours, beyond looking at users who respond with a link to Snopes. Going beyond studying the nature of rumours to gain insight into how they are spread and supported by recipients, some researchers have also worked on the development of automated techniques to categorise the type of support provided experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study each tweet towards the underlying rumour [ 1127 ]. The dataset introduced in the current work provides a suitable resource to expand research in this direction. In the absence of research that takes a broad look at the diffusion, support and denial of rumours in social media, experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study set out to develop a methodology that would enable us to collect, annotate and analyse a large collection of rumours that we could then analyse for how people react to them.

In contrast to previous approaches, our methodology enables gathering collections of rumours that are not necessarily known a prioriso that we can collect a diverse set of rumours with different levels of popularity. We experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study a scheme for the annotation of social media, which we apply to a collection of conversation threads discussing different rumours, associated with 9 different newsworthy events.

Using this dataset, we analyse rumour diffusion, support and denial in social media, looking at how they evolve from the point of being experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study to eventual resolution. Our study shows interesting differences between true and experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study rumours, one of them being that the former are typically resolved much faster than the latter.

We find that social media users generally show a experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study towards supporting rumours whose experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study is yet to be resolved, which questions the validity of using the aggregated judgments of users for determining the veracity of a rumour. Users do reasonably well in distinguishing true and false rumours what happens when you report a status on facebook they are corroborated or debunked, but aggregated judgments while a rumour is still unverified leave much to be desired.

This emphasises the need for developing machine learning techniques that experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study provide assistance in assessing experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study veracity in real-time. The main contributions of our study include:. The way the data is collected as well as the manual annotation process constitute an important part of our methodology, allowing us to analyse experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study features of social media.

Previous research has focused on collecting data for rumours known to have been circulating a priori [ 112223 ] rather than a more general approach to the collection of new rumours. By gathering rumours experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study a priorione can, for instance, search for tweets with specific keywords, e. However, this approach will fail to identify rumours associated with events for which specific keywords have not been previously defined. In this study, our goal has been to extend rumour collection to encompass different types of rumourous stories that are not necessarily known a priori.

We did experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study by collecting tweets from the streaming API relating to newsworthy events that could potentially prompt the initiation and propagation of rumours. Selected rumours were then captured in the form of conversation threads. We performed the collection of rumourous conversations in three steps. First, we collected candidate rumourous stories signaled by highly retweeted tweets associated with newsworthy current events from Twitter. Second, journalists in the research team selected from these candidate rumours those that met the rumour criteria [ 28 ] and identified the tweets that actually introduced them.

Finally, we collected associated conversations experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study these rumour-introducing tweets and annotated them using an annotation scheme specifically crafted for this purpose. We collected tweets for nine different events, which include five cases of breaking news:. Collection through the streaming API was launched straight after the journalists identified a newsworthy event likely to give rise to rumours.

As soon as the journalists informed us about a newsworthy event, we set up the data collection process for that event, tracking the main hashtags and keywords pertaining to the event as a whole. Note that while launching experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study collection slightly after the start of the event means that we may have missed the very early tweets, we kept collecting subsequent retweets of those early tweets, making it much more likely that we would retrieve the most retweeted tweets from the very first minutes. This is also consistent with our methodology as we rely on highly retweeted tweets to identify candidate rumours.

Given the large volume of the datasets, we sampled rumour candidates by picking tweets that sparked a high number of retweets. This is justified by our definition of rumours, which specifies that a statement has to generate substantial interest and be widely circulated in order to be considered as a rumour. Depending on the event, the retweet threshold used ranged from two for specific rumours Prince, Gurlitt, Putin, Michael Essien to up to for larger-scale events Ferguson, Experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study, Sydney, Charlie Hebdo. Although the crash of the Germanwings airplane in the French Alps was a significant event Africana Dance Aesthetics / Culture thesis writing help generated Twitter conversations over the course of several days, a lower threshold of 25 retweets was chosen in order to capture an adequate number of tweets in German.

The sampled subsets of tweets were visualised experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study a timeline with links to the conversation thread sparked by experiencing data gathering processes in rumour and gossip study of the initial source tweets. Next, journalists were asked to identify rumourous source tweets and non-rumourous source tweets. Journalists often need to clarify information they need to use and thus have experience separating corroborated facts from rumours. Additionally, the journalists continually tracked the nine events, so they were knowledgeable about the stories and rumours associated with them.

The visualisation of source tweets in the form of a timeline, accompanied by the context added by the conversation thread they spark, made it easier to keep track of posts as the event unfolds. While data collection was concurrent with events unfolding, the annotation process was performed a posteriorionce a consensus had emerged about the facts relating to the event in question. This enabled the journalists to be more knowledgeable about the entire story, as well as any rumours that had emerged and how they had been resolved.

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